An ad valorem duty goes up as the value of the goods, shares and so on that it is charged on rises. Spider Big Through. without dividend. ~ Voltaire, "I was never ruined but twice; once when I lost a lawsuit and once when I won one." ~ HonorÃ© de Balzac, "Only a Free and Unrestrained Press can effectively expose deception in government." For example, if the charges were 2%, the allocation rate would be 98%. We well understand your intention Justice, it’s your first step We’re in your corner! ~ Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr., Supreme Court Justice, "Taxes are the price we pay for a civilized society." documents which set out a company's rules. Contact |, Privacy | This post is going specialized for lawyers. immunity given to certain members of foreign embassies, such as ambassadors, for crimes they may have committed. The shares are usually on sale at a lower price than the stock market price to encourage shareholders to buy. The amount is set out in the company's memorandum of association. ~ Mortimer Zuckerman, "...the Constitution will endure as a vital charter of human liberty as long as there are those with the courage to defend it, the vision to interpret it, and the fidelity to live by it." the failure by one side to a contract to disclose (reveal) a fact to the other side that would influence their decision to go ahead with the contract. stocks, shares, debentures and so on where there is a right to receive interest or dividends from the investment. It gives the type and number of shares owned by the shareholder and lists the serial numbers of the shares. a section of the High Court. But there aren't loads of countries where they're followed." in a civil case, formal questions from one side which the other side must answer under oath. (This term is Latin. a person appointed by the Crown to act as a magistrate. You have to teach it to every generation." testifies in a way which differs from their previous statement. They do not have to pay in extra money if there is not enough to pay all the company's debts. Acknowledgement. doing something to interfere with the justice system (such as misleading the court or intimidating witnesses). The Department of Trade and Industry appoints official receivers. acting unlawfully to deprive someone of their ownership of goods. a winding up ordered because fairness cannot be achieved for all the members of a company. Lower courts have to follow the decisions of the higher courts. the name for a body (usually dead). When a person intends to buy a property such as a house, a solicitor arranges the inspection. ~ Thurgood Marshall, Supreme Court Justice, "The people's good is the highest law." the liability of manufacturers and sellers to compensate people for unsafe goods which have caused injury to people or property. part of the certificate which is evidence of someone's title. a document setting out the details of the offence a defendant is accused of. a sum of money which has to be paid if the terms of a contract are broken; or. All We Do is Work Billing a Better Future. a document which transfers ownership of goods from one person to another. This is very much a 'work in progress', and we welcome any corrections, clarifications or suggested additions. Lower courts must follow the precedents set by the decisions of higher courts and this is called binding precedent. a conviction which, after the passage of a stated time period, does not have to be disclosed (revealed) to a court. the seal companies use to authenticate (validate) important company documents. a defence which can be used in a case of defamation if the statement from which the defamation arose was: a document, drawn up by the seller, summarising the title deeds to a property (such as a house). In a civil case the defendant may offer a defence to the claim, or even make a counterclaim. ~ William O. Douglas, Supreme Court Justice, "How many times have I laughed at you telling me plainly that I was too lazy to be anything but a lawyer." (This term was replaced with statement of case' in April 1999). It belongs to the Crown but the finder and the landowner may get a reward. evidence for the prosecution given by someone who is also accused of the crime being tried. “It is forbidden to kill; therefore all murderers are punished unless they kill in large numbers and to … a crime for which a person may be arrested without a warrant being needed. a court judgement which a creditor may get against the person or organisation which owes the money, giving the creditor security over the debtor's property for repayment of the debt. This is usually its father's domicile or, if the father is dead, its mother's. ~ Martin Luther King, "Law and order exist for the purpose of establishing justice and when they fail in this purpose they become the dangerously structured dams that block the flow of social progress." ~ Franklin D. Roosevelt, "A majority held in restraint by constitutional checks and limitationsâ¦is the only true sovereign of a free people. a lawful market in which, as long as someone buying goods is not aware that they do not belong to the seller, the buyer will get a good title to the goods. The forms are then sent to the registry together with the will and the death certificate. one thing being done causing something else to happen. It is a criminal offence. a way of paying for things by exchanging goods instead of using money. 'buyer beware'. the assumption in the law that goods sold by a business will be fit for their purpose. authority to deal with a dead person's estate. an act which, if carried out by a person with debts, could have led to bankruptcy proceedings against that person. a document issued by a company which acknowledges that some or all of the company's assets are security for a debt (usually to a bank). For example, a guarantee is sometimes required by a bank before it will lend money to a customer. The members of most limited companies will only have to pay any money unpaid on their shares. They are not intended to make a profit. ~ Sandra Day O'Connor, Supreme Court Justice, "Commitment to the rule of law provides a basic assurance that people can know what to expect whether what they do is popular or unpopular at the time." an asset which can be physically touched. Today it is often used to refer to a woman as well. The things it deals with include minor criminal cases, most criminal cases involving 10- to 17-year-olds, issuing alcoholic drink licences and hearing child welfare cases. damages a court will give to compensate for a wrong done without needing specific proof that damage has been done to the claimant ('plaintiff' before April 1999). when someone is sentenced for different crimes and the sentences are to be served at the same time. The fund manager values the fund's assets from time to time and puts a new price on the fund's units. to formally accuse someone of committing a crime; to use property as security for a debt (such as a mortgage); or. the area covered by a bishop's authority. The reason for this is that ancient Rome’s legal system has had a strong influence on the legal systems of most western countries. an order by a court instructing the local authority to care for a child. money charged regularly on freehold land. when criminal proceedings are brought against a person without there being any good reason and with malice. They are each responsible individually to repay all the debt as well as being responsible as a group. Law Firm Slogans Let me fight for you We will take you through each step till the end. A company is another example of a corporate body. an agreement between a debtor and the creditors. ~ Cicero, Roman politician and lawyer, "When you have no basis for an argument, abuse the plaintiff." an agreement which depends on a certain thing happening in the future. an insurance company insuring part of a risk it is covering. a trust which manages investments. molestation or ill-treatment suffered by a child. You claim part of the cost against your profits before your tax is worked out for the year. ~ Book of John, 8:32, "Where law ends, tyranny begins." a court for the clergy. taking game from someone else's land without permission. the country where your permanent home is, even if you are living somewhere else for now. one party in a civil case revealing to the other party the documents relevant to the case under the first party's control and allowing them to be inspected. a written promise to repay a debt at an agreed time and to pay an agreed rate of interest on the debt. evidence that the person was somewhere else when the crime was committed; or. Unsold goods can be returned if the conditions of the contract have been kept to and the buyer pays for the goods used. For example, if 10 items cost Â£100 you would expect three items to cost Â£30 if they were priced pro rata. intentionally occupying land to prevent the rightful owner or tenant using it. This often happens when an employee does something wrong while at work which becomes the employer's responsibility (such as an employee working negligently and causing someone else to be hurt because of the negligence). The creditors share the money the debtor manages to pay in proportion to what they are each owed. It is also in a civil case a written statement (pleading) by the defendant setting out the facts that the defence will rely on. (This word is Latin.). If the borrower fails to repay the debt, the bank can sell the security and repay the debt out of the proceeds of the sale. something which must happen before a contract starts. how a piece of land is held by the owner (for instance freehold or leasehold). a person who has legally adopted a child. a legal document which people use to bequeath (leave as a gift) money and property when they die. ~ Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr., Supreme Court Justice, "The Constitution doesn't belong to a bunch of judges and lawyers. a person between the ages of 14 and 17 who has committed a crime. Brian Thornton-June 9, 2017. A change is as good as a rest. shares allocated to a buyer. Better See Laws. Each year the officers of a company have to fill in an annual return with details of the members, officers, shares issued and other information about the company. a legal right which stops things being copied without permission. the person who gives legal advice to the Treasury. a solicitor or barrister who helps in court by advising the magistrates. St. Peter says to him, âYou only look about 45 years old.â âYes,â says the lawyer, âI just turned 45.â âBut our records say that you are 94 years old.â âOh,â responded the lawyer, âyou must have been looking at my billing records.â, The client started to question the lawyer about part of his bill. Completion happens when the ownership of the land is transferred to the person buying it, in return for the seller receiving the rest of the purchase price. 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