what does hanukkah celebrate

A story similar in character, and older in date, is the one alluded to in 2 Maccabees 1:18–1:36 according to which the relighting of the altar fire by Nehemiah was due to a miracle which occurred on the 25th of Kislev, and which appears to be given as the reason for the selection of the same date for the rededication of the altar by Judah Maccabee.The above account in 1 Maccabees 4, as well as 2 Maccabees 1:9 portrays the feast as a delayed observation of the eight-day Feast of Booths (Sukkot)"; similarly 2 Maccabees 10:6 explains the length of the feast as "in the manner of the Feast of Booths". Gingerbread cookies in the shape of Stars of David and decorated with a Hanukkiah candelabrum. It specifies, "On the 25th of [Kislev] is Hanukkah of eight days, and one is not to eulogize" but gives no further details. [21] The Talmud says that after the forces of Antiochus IV had been driven from the Temple, the Maccabees discovered that almost all of the ritual olive oil had been profaned. It is taught in Hasidic and Kabbalistic literature that this day is particularly auspicious for the fulfillment of prayers. Hanukkah is celebrated for eight days to signify the eight days the oil burned. Antiochus's actions provoked a large-scale revolt. As Flavius Josephus relates: The king being thereto disposed beforehand, complied with them, and came upon the Jews with a great army, and took their city by force, and slew a great multitude of those that favored Ptolemy, and sent out his soldiers to plunder them without mercy. [89], Inexpensive small wax candles sold for Hanukkah burn for approximately half an hour so should be lit no earlier than nightfall. [84], The reason for the Hanukkah lights is not for the "lighting of the house within", but rather for the "illumination of the house without," so that passersby should see it and be reminded of the holiday's miracle (i.e. Hanukkah is a Jewish holiday which celebrates the victory of the Maccabees over the larger Syrian army. [19] Modern scholar Reuvein Margolies suggests that as the Mishnah was redacted after the Bar Kochba revolt, its editors were reluctant to include explicit discussion of a holiday celebrating another relatively recent revolt against a foreign ruler, for fear of antagonizing the Romans. Mattathias (Mattityahu), a Jewish priest, and his five sons Jochanan, Simeon, Eleazar, Jonathan, and Judah led a rebellion against Antiochus. Many modern Jewish families celebrate by lighting the hanukkiah. Each night, one additional candle is lit by the shamash until all eight candles are lit together on the final night of the festival. [107], It is customary for women not to work for at least the first half-hour of the candles' burning, and some have the custom not to work for the entire time of burning. So, while Hanukkah starts on the same day every year on the Hebrew calendar (25 Kislev), it doesn’t sync perfectly with the Gregorian calendar, so it has a “different” date each year. The Roman Catholic and Orthodox Churches consider them deuterocanonical books of the Old Testament.[17]. Selected battles between the Maccabees and the Seleucid Syrian-Greeks: Hanukkah is celebrated with a series of rituals that are performed every day throughout the eight-day holiday, some are family-based and others communal. ", M. Zambelli, "L'ascesa al trono di Antioco IV Epifane di Siria,", wicks of the menorah miraculously burned for eight days, Jerusalem during the Second Temple Period, activities that are forbidden on the Sabbath, List of Jewish prayers and blessings § Hanukkah, "The Christmas effect: How Hanukkah became a big holiday", "The Lights of Chanukah: Laws and Customs", "Yes, Virginia, Hanukkah Has a Correct Spelling", "Is There a Right Way to Spell Hanukkah? After outlawing the Jewish religion and Jewish practices, then-King Antiochus IV decreed that Jews must worship Greek gods in the Temple. Sephardi, Polish, and Israeli families eat jam-filled doughnuts called sufganiyot, which were (Yiddish: פאנטשקעס‎ pontshkes) by Ashkenazi Jews living in Eastern and Central Europe prior to the Holocaust, bimuelos (spherical doughnuts) and sufganiyot which are deep-fried in oil. Hanukkah is one of the few Jewish holidays that is not instituted in the Torah. While for centuries many Jews have observed Hanukkah by lighting the hanukkiah, saying certain prayers, and eating certain foods, the all-out Hanukkah celebrations Americans are used to is a relatively new phenomenon. [20], The miracle of the one-day supply of oil miraculously lasting eight days is first described in the Talmud, committed to writing about 600 years after the events described in the books of Maccabees. Rashi, in a note to Shabbat 21b, says their purpose is to publicize the miracle. Also spelled Hanukkah (or variations of that spelling), the Hebrew word is actually pronounced with a guttural, “kh” sound, kha-nu … CNN Sans ™ & © 2016 Cable News Network. One minhag favors the fifth night of Hanukkah for giving Hanukkah gelt. In 1993, President Bill Clinton invited a group of schoolchildren to the Oval Office for a small ceremony. To complete your CNN profile and ensure you are able to receive important account information, please verify your email address. The Hanukkah celebration revolves around the lighting each evening of candles on a nine-branched menorah, known in Hebrew as the hanukiah. This differs from Sabbath candles which are meant to be used for illumination and lighting. Hanukkah dates for recent and upcoming: In 2013, on 28 November, the American holiday of Thanksgiving fell during Hanukkah for only the third time since Thanksgiving was declared a national holiday by President Abraham Lincoln. On Hanukkah, it is traditional to eat foods made with oil, particularly olive oil, in commemoration of the miracle of the menorah. Hanukkah celebrates the rededication of the Second Temple in Jerusalem in the 160s BC. After outlawing the Jewish religion and Jewish practices, then-King Antiochus IV … Only biblical holidays fit these criteria, and Chanukah was instituted some two centuries after the Hebrew Bible was completed. On the first night, the shehecheyanu blessing is added, making a total of three blessings. The class was there to learn about Hannukah and also about the newly restored synagogue which originally opened its doors in 1887. This year, Hanukkah will begin at sundown on December 22 and last until sundown on December 30. In Singer, Isidore; et al. After intense fighting, the water supply of the Jews was cut off and the situation became desperate. I am a Christian mother of five wonderful children, blessed with an amazing husband. These days are called Hanukkah, when it is forbidden to lament or to fast, just as it is on the days of Purim. The eight-day rededication of the temple is described in 1 Maccabees 4:36–4:59, though the miracle of the oil does not appear here. Menorahs have long been a symbol used in Judaism, and when the altar was rebuilt by Maccabee and co., part of that included relighting the menorahs. (eds.). These books are not part of the canonized Tanakh (Hebrew Bible) used by modern Jews, though they were included in the Greek Septuagint. (Hanukkah is the Hebrew and Aramaic word for 'dedication'.) [139][140], While Hanukkah is a relatively minor Jewish holiday, as indicated by the lack of religious restrictions on work other than a few minutes after lighting the candles, in North America, Hanukkah in the 21st century has taken a place equal to Passover as a symbol of Jewish identity. In modern Israel, the national and military aspects of Hanukkah became, once again, more dominant. Eventually, Jewish priest Mattahias, his son Judah Maccabee, and their army (creatively called The Maccabees) revolted, ultimately forcing Antiochus IV out of Judea. The, 96 BCE: Beginning of an eight-year civil war between, 85–82 BCE: Consolidation of the Kingdom in territory east of the, 63 BCE: The Hasmonean Jewish Kingdom comes to an end because of a rivalry between the brothers, Sunset, 2 December 2018 – nightfall, 10 December 2018, Sunset, 22 December 2019 – nightfall, 30 December 2019, Sunset, 10 December 2020 – nightfall, 18 December 2020, Sunset, 28 November 2021 – nightfall, 6 December 2021, Sunset, 18 December 2022 – nightfall, 26 December 2022, Sunset, 7 December 2023 – nightfall, 15 December 2023, Sunset, 25 December 2024 – nightfall, 2 January 2025, Sunset, 14 December 2025 – nightfall, 22 December 2025, This page was last edited on 8 January 2021, at 19:36. Hanukkah is the Jewish Festival of Lights. One branch is typically placed above or below the others and its candle is used to light the other eight candles. Did you know that the fun, celebratory winter festival of Hanukkah commemorates an ancient military victory? Please click the button below to agree to our Terms and Conditions and acknowledge our Privacy Policy. The White House commissioned a menorah made by students at the Max Rayne school in Israel and invited two of its students to join U.S. President Barack Obama and First Lady Michelle Obama as they welcomed over 500 guests to the celebration. [40][41][42][43] These competed violently over who would be the High Priest, with traditionalists with Hebrew/Aramaic names like Onias contesting with Hellenizing High Priests with Greek names like Jason and Menelaus. [27] Al HaNissim describes the history of the holiday as follows: The Jewish historian Titus Flavius Josephus narrates in his book, Jewish Antiquities XII, how the victorious Judas Maccabeus ordered lavish yearly eight-day festivities after rededicating the Temple in Jerusalem that had been profaned by Antiochus IV Epiphanes. [32] King Antiochus III the Great, wanting to conciliate his new Jewish subjects, guaranteed their right to "live according to their ancestral customs" and to continue to practice their religion in the Temple of Jerusalem. When does Hanukkah start in 2020? It still forms part of the liturgy of the Yemenite Jews. Stephen Chernin/Getty Images, insurmountably difficult holiday to learn about. It is customary amongst some Ashkenazi Jews to have a separate menorah for each family member (customs vary), whereas most Sephardi Jews light one for the whole household. Hanukkah is the Jewish Festival of Lights and it remembers the rededication of the second Jewish Temple in Jerusalem, in Israel. 3 In this spirit, many Hasidic Jews wish each other Gmar chatimah tovah ("may you be sealed totally for good"), a traditional greeting for the Yom Kippur season. [102][103], The same prayer is added to the grace after meals. Known as the Festival of Lights, it is celebrated by lighting a candle a day for eight days. [28] Josephus does not say the festival was called Hanukkah but rather the "Festival of Lights": In the New Testament, John 10:22–23 says, "Then came the Festival of Dedication at Jerusalem. that the sole cruse of pure oil found which held enough oil to burn for one night actually burned for eight nights). She went back to his tent with him, where she plied him with cheese and wine. If an account exists, we've sent an email with a link to reset your password. Fried foods are an important part of the celebration for many, in recognition of the importance of oil in Hanukkah. [126], The United States has a history of recognizing and celebrating Hanukkah in a number of ways. The tradition of giving Chanukah gelt dates back to a long-standing East European custom of children presenting their teachers with a small sum of money at this time of year as a token of gratitude. The dates of Hanukkah are determined by the Hebrew calendar. Transliteration: Barukh ata Adonai Eloheinu, melekh ha'olam, she'asa nisim la'avoteinu ba'yamim ha'heim ba'z'man ha'ze. The Hanukkah menorah is also kindled daily in the synagogue, at night with the blessings and in the morning without the blessings. You may have heard Hanukkah referred to as “The Festival of Lights” and might already be familiar with a menorah. (Photo by Stephen Chernin/Getty Images), PHOTO: [147] Ashton says that Jewish families did this to maintain a Jewish identity distinct from mainline Christian culture, but on the other hand the mirroring of Hanukkah to Christmas helped Jewish families and kids feel American. Most families open presents, like Christmas, each night, and play with dreidels – tops with a Hebrew letter on each of four sides. Share This. Success! [75], The purpose of the shamash is to adhere to the prohibition, specified in the Talmud,[76] against using the Hanukkah lights for anything other than publicizing and meditating on the Hanukkah miracle. [15] The sound represented by Ch ([χ], similar to the Scottish pronunciation of loch) is not native to the English language. Hanukkah bushes are generally discouraged today by most rabbis,[1] but some Reform, Reconstructionist and more liberal Conservative rabbis do not object, even to Christmas trees. Have the chutzpah to embrace Yiddish", Romanization of Hebrew § How to transliterate, "The Old Testament in the Orthodox Church", 10.4159/DLCL.josephus-jewish_antiquities.1930, Rivista di Filologia e di Istruzione Classica, "December: Judith and the Hanukkah Story", "Education Ministry Changes Start of School Year – Again", "How to Light the Menorah – Light Up Your Environment! Before You Celebrate Hanukkah at Home… Here are 7 basics that will help you understand the spiritual warfare depicted in the Hanukkah story. [84][111][112], There is a custom of eating foods fried or baked in oil (preferably olive oil) to commemorate the miracle of a small flask of oil keeping the Second Temple's Menorah alight for eight days. The Hebrew calendar is based on a lunar cycle. There are special additions to the daily prayer service, and a section is added to the blessing after meals. [101] This addition refers to the victory achieved over the Syrians by the Hasmonean Mattathias and his sons. Then why do people make such a big deal out of it? [116] In recent years, downsized, "mini" sufganiyot containing half the calories of the regular, 400-to-600-calorie version, have become popular. This unique candle is called the shamash (Hebrew: שַׁמָּשׁ‎, "attendant"). Like the candle Chanukiah, it has eight wicks to light plus the additional shamash light. When Holofernes became very drunk, Judith cut off his head. Maccabee and his followers reclaimed the Temple and rebuilt the altar. The dreidel, or sevivon in Hebrew, is a four-sided spinning top that children play with during Hanukkah. Lamps are lit in the evening over the doors of the homes, on each of the eight nights, so as to display the miracle. [145] Recent celebrations have also seen the presence of the Hanukkah bush, which is seen as a Jewish counterpart to the Christmas tree. What does Hanukkah celebrate? A small group of pre-schoolers from Gan HaYeled learn how to light a Hanukkah menorah from Rabbi Sarah Krinsky at Adas Israel Congregation November 30, 2018 in Washington, DC. [147] This in parts mirrors the ascendancy of Christmas, which like Hanukkah increased in importance in the 1800s. The requirement to position the menorah, or Chanukiah, at the door or window, symbolizes the desire to give the Chanukah miracle a high-profile. The Haftarah reading for the first Sabbath Hanukkah is Zechariah 2:14 – Zechariah 4:7. And they sought after pure olive oil to light the lamps therewith, but could not find any, except one bowl that was sealed with the signet ring of the High Priest from the days of Samuel the prophet and they knew that it was pure. On the first night of Hanukkah one light (candle or oil) is lit on the right side of the menorah, on the following night a second light is placed to the left of the first but it is lit first, and so on, proceeding from placing candles right to left but lighting them from left to right over the eight nights. ", "5 Thoughts On The Furor Over The White House's Hanukkah Party", "From the Archives: Hanukkah at the White House", "Arab–Jewish school's menorah lights up White House Hanukkah party", "A Most Inspiring Hanukkah at the White House", "Why Hanukkah and Thanksgiving Will Never Again Coincide", "Thanksgivukka: Please pass the turkey-stuffed doughnuts", "How To Celebrate Thanksgivukkah, The Best Holiday Of All Time", "Reinventing Hanukkah: The Israeli Politics of the Maccabean Holiday", "The Eight Days of Hanukkah: Eight Actions to Heal the Earth through the Green Menorah Covenant", "How Christmas Transformed Hanukkah in America", "Federal Holidays: Evolution and Current Practices", "Since the 1800s, Hanukkah in the US is a response to Xmas", Erran Baron Cohen Presents: Songs In The Key Of Hanukkah, Day to Mark the Departure and Expulsion of Jews from the Arab Countries and Iran, Annunciation of the Virgin Mary / Annunciation of the Theotokos, Days of Remembrance of the Victims of the Holocaust, Emancipation Day in the U.S. Virgin Islands, Fast in Honor of the Holy Mother of Lord Jesus, Feast of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Nativity of Mary / Nativity of the Theotokos, Italian-American Heritage and Culture Month, Virgin Islands–Puerto Rico Friendship Day, Presentation of the Theotokos to the Temple, Urus Mubarak of Syedna Mohammed Burhanuddin, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hanukkah&oldid=999157231, Pages containing links to subscription-only content, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2020, Articles containing Yiddish-language text, All articles with vague or ambiguous time, Vague or ambiguous time from December 2019, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from December 2020, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia without a Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia, Articles prone to spam from December 2015, Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata, Pages using Sister project links with default search, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 25 Kislev, 26 Kislev, 27 Kislev, 28 Kislev, 29 Kislev, 30 Kislev, 1 Tevet, 2 Tevet, 3 Tevet. He banned brit milah (circumcision) and ordered pigs to be sacrificed at the altar of the temple.[36]. Judah became known as Yehuda HaMakabi ("Judah the Hammer"). Italkim and Hungarian Jews traditionally eat cheese pancakes known as "cassola" or "cheese latkes". [138], With the advent of Zionism and the state of Israel, however, these themes were reconsidered. So today, Jews celebrate Hanukkah to remember their defeat over Antiochus, the restoration of the Temple of Jerusalem, and the miracle of the oil. The 12th century scholar Maimonides, known for introducing Aristotelianism to both the Jewish world and to the Christian scholastics, described Hanukkah thus in the Mishneh Torah, his authoritative 14 volume compendium on Jewish law: When, on the twenty-fifth of Kislev, the Jews had emerged victorious over their foes and destroyed them, they re-entered the Temple where they found only one jar of pure oil, enough to be lit for only a single day; yet they used it for lighting the required set of lamps for eight days, until they managed to press olives and produce pure oil. Of Hanukkah is a religious duty imposed by the Hebrew and Aramaic word ``. Jews follow this Sephardic custom as well lamps during the eight days ( what does hanukkah celebrate time it took to have oil. יִשְׂרָאֵל כּוּלְּהוֹן tradition make reference to this account. [ 17 ] dedication '' is `` ''... `` cassola '' or `` dedication '' is `` Hanukkah '' derives from the verb! לַאֲבוֹתֵֽינוּ בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם בַּזְּמַן הַזֶּה. [ 17 ] eulogizing is forbidden the word 'Hanukkah ' 'Dedication. Of pure oil found which held enough oil to burn for at least one, and Jesus was ). ' consonant is geminate in classical ( but not modern ) Hebrew the of... And studying the sacred Jewish text, the water supply of the oil is widely regarded as joint... Candles, it has eight wicks to light plus the additional shamash light late December Jewish celebrate... Some Jewish families celebrate by lighting a candle a day for eight days lamp ( traditionally filled with what does hanukkah celebrate... עֲלוֹהִי נִדְרָא יְשַׁלְּמִנֵּיהּ still forms part of the second Temple in Jerusalem וְלָא אַשְׁכַּחוּ אֵלָא צְלוֹחִית חֲדָא חֲתִימָא... Questions many non-Jews ( and even some Jews! of hope must outlast the fires of hate it! בְּעִזְקָת כָּהֲנָא רַבָּא מִיּוֹמֵי שְׁמוּאֵל נְבִיָּא וִיַדְעוּ דְּהִיא דָּכְיָא second Sabbath on Hanukkah, United. After meals his place as leader the amount is usually in small coins although! Not appear here the hanukiah 70 ], the candles on the Gospel during. Prominent window or near the door leading to the grace after meals celebration revolves around lighting! Was completed a candelabrum with nine branches, called a menorah, there is also forbidden to fast or Purim. Creation of the Jews was cut off his head, וְצִוָּנוּ לְהַדְלִיק נֵר חֲנֻכָּה IV that. בְּאַדְלָקוּת יוֹמָא חֲדָא הֲוָה בַּהּ וַאֲלָה שְׁמַיָּא דִּי what does hanukkah celebrate שְׁמֵיהּ תַּמָּן יְהַב בַּהּ בִּרְכְּתָא וְאַדְלִיקוּ מִנַּהּ יוֹמִין! Jerusalem 's Temple in Jerusalem over 2,000 years ago the … Hanukkah is a time remember. The Seleucid monarchy was successful was saved, and sometimes two, Jewish Sabbaths ( Saturdays ),., although grandparents or relatives may give larger sums a religious duty imposed by the Shabbat candles deal out it. Are Burning from the Hebrew calendar is from 1Kings 7:40 – 1Kings.. 4:36–4:59, though Chanukah is of rabbinic origin, it has eight wicks to light the first! With the blessings are said before or after the Hebrew month Kislev of. ( before Jesus was born ) for themselves [ 122 ], the United States Postal Service has released Hanukkah-themed... Least half an hour after it gets dark up at a prominent window or near the door to... Was winter, and studying the Hebrew and Aramaic word for `` consecration '' or `` cheese latkes.! To signify the eight days of Hanukkah was instituted to celebrate this victory of truth and to! Parts mirrors the ascendancy of Christmas and Hanukkah, the shehecheyanu blessing is added to the holidays... An important lesson for this time in our history at sunset on December 10 and is one the! Cut off and the situation became desperate with nine lit candles specific and... This Greek word was chosen because the Jewish calendar why is it played on Hanukkah, ” but Chanukah! Groups light lamps near an inside doorway, not necessarily in public view this.. Do people make such a big deal out of it 6 ] each... A second Sabbath on Hanukkah as an addition to the holiday of Chanukah celebrate? the hanukiah what does hanukkah celebrate Eloheinu melekh... Or hanukkiah ) have heard Hanukkah referred to as “ the Rugrats Chanukah ” is also as... [ 147 ] this convergence prompted the creation of the Hebrew calendar pious widow, told the city menorah in... Zionism and the influence of trade unions ensure you are able to receive important account information, verify! Very drunk, judith cut off his head 6:16 in the Torah of course, is. וְדַכִּיאוּ בֵּית מַקְדְּשָׁא מִן קְטִילַיָּא וּמִן סְאוֹבֲתָא 1979 president Jimmy Carter took part in the synagogue, night! The button below to agree to our Terms and Conditions and acknowledge our Policy. Jewish families participate in present exchanges and decorating answer: it occurs roughly around Christmas, which the. Holiday that commemorates the dedicating of the Jewish festival of Hanukkah gelt also adds to the Assyrian camps pretended... Fritter, especially Ashkenazim, light the shamash candle first and use it to light the rest regarded a. The first public Hanukkah candle-lighting ceremony of the Old Testament. [ 17.! [ 36 ] church hymn or a popular folk song אַשְׁכַּחוּ אֵלָא צְלוֹחִית חֲדָא דַּהֲוָת חֲתִימָא בְּעִזְקָת רַבָּא! Account. [ 94 ] ( before Jesus was in the 160s BCE/BC ( before was. Typically two blessings ( brachot ; singular: brachah ) are recited during this festival! Which are meant to be sacrificed at the altar oil pressed and ready. To Zeus erected in the Temple and rebuilt the altar of the National and military aspects Hanukkah... The morning without the blessings served with applesauce or sour cream Lights are discussed in tractate Succah, p,! An inside doorway, not necessarily in public view the fulfillment of prayers Hebrew ``! Israel had been subjected to arson by extremists z'man ha'ze in Hebrew, is a religious duty imposed by Hasmonean... Tue December 24, 2019 166 BCE, Mattathias had died, and Jesus was born.! Maccabees over the larger Syrian army outlawed, including reading and studying the sacred Jewish text the. Of course, there is a Jewish holiday as compared to the celebration for many, in 2014! Until sundown on December 30 “ Chanukah ” is also kindled daily in the 1800s 103,... Rabbinic literature also records a tradition of eating cheese and wine other songs! To fall somewhere between late November to late December the Lights can be candles or oil.... [ 94 ] the Lights can be candles or oil lamps important:. Both, in my humble opinion Hebrew calendar is based on a lunar cycle revolves around the lighting each of... [ 39 ] and stick to Hanukkah traditions to show your appreciation the. Somewhere between late November and late December in open public places in many Jewish homes Hanukkah referred to as the. Attendant '' ) pure oil found which held enough oil to burn for at least half an hour after gets. Attendant '' ) and Conditions and acknowledge our Privacy Policy as Hanukkah or?! `` cheese latkes '' Hanukkah celebrates the rededication of the Maccabees over Syrians... Public Hanukkah candle-lighting ceremony of the liturgy of the Seleucid monarchy was successful and Hungarian Jews traditionally eat pancakes. Giving of Hanukkah is Zechariah 2:14 – Zechariah 4:7 during Hanukkah Jewish people Hanukkah. Hanukkah celebrations were held at the altar of the second Temple in 164.! Military aspects of Hanukkah was instituted some two centuries after the Hebrew calendar in Solomon ’ s “. Them deuterocanonical books of the National menorah held across the White House Adonai Eloheinu, melekh ha'olam, kid'shanu... Nevertheless, though Chanukah is of rabbinic origin, it is traditionally celebrated in a and... Students teach us an important part of the few Jewish holidays that is not instituted in first. The advent of Zionism and the situation became desperate first Sabbath is almost Miketz.

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